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2018考研沖刺:教你三大背誦技巧

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 一、趁熱打鐵
  
  遺忘的進程并不是均衡的,根據艾賓浩斯遺忘曲線,識記初期我們遺忘得最快,但隨著時間推移,遺忘數量在不斷減少。所以背書的時候一定要“趁熱打鐵”,在徹底忘記之前就要重新鞏固背過的內容,而且要多重復幾遍。
  
  舉個例子,我們下午開始學習新內容之前,可以先將上午記憶過的內容重新翻看一遍,晚上學習結束時再將當天所學的知識回顧一遍,第二天重復這個過程,第三天再來一遍。越往后面,你要回顧的內容就會越多,但是速度也會越來越快。這個過程可能會比較痛苦,因為我們本能地對重復的內容有一種抵觸感。但是,這也是一個必經的過程。如果知識點數量比較多,可以在學習過程中把之前學過的知識點劃分成不同的單元。每天復習的時候,先回顧最新記憶的內容,然后由后往前記憶這個單元的內容。
  
  二、先理解,再記憶
  
  記憶有意義的內容比記憶無意義的內容遺忘得更慢;熟悉的材料、難易度適當的材料比生疏的材料遺忘得慢;感興趣的內容比不感興趣的內容遺忘得慢。什么是有意義的識記?也就是在理解材料的基礎上,跟已有的知識建立聯系并納入自己的知識結構中,之后再進行記憶。
  
  這條規律要求我們不能在看一遍知識點后就“死記硬背”,我們要做的首先是熟悉新知識點,然后想辦法把它跟自己知識體系中的知識點掛上勾,接下來把新知識消化吸收,最后形成新的知識體系。
  
  此外,這條規律還提醒我們,看書要先從簡單的基礎書目開始,例如指定的教材。那些可能會考到的課外論著要在我們充分掌握基礎知識之后再進行,不然可能看了和沒看一樣。
  
  三、適度重復

一定范圍內識記的程度越高,遺忘越少。但這個“一定范圍”的界限到底在哪里呢?對此,有一個專門的說法叫“過度學習”。如果你對某些內容的熟悉程度是剛好能背誦,在這個基礎上繼續記憶這些內容,即為“過度學習”。當“過度學習”達到150%時,效果最好,遺忘最少。
  
  我們都知道剛剛能掌握某個知識點時,一定將其多重復記憶幾次,但是一直很難把握好“度”。而這個150%的“過度學習”,就是我們追求的度。超過了這個度,記憶效果反而不佳,也容易對記憶的內容產生厭煩的情緒。“過猶不及”也是我們需要避開的坑。


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